CFA Society VBA Netherlands news feedhttps://cfavba.nl/en/Latest news and articles by CFA Society VBA NetherlandsThu, 01 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200enAim for greenhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/aim-for-green/301cac2c-9895-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Currently financial markets are in the aftermath of implementing regulations which were initiated between 2007-2010 after earlier crises. The regulatory environment is settling down in relation to the aims of these regulations. Enhanced consumer protection measures as well as improved transparency, risk mitigation, central clearing, transaction reporting and many others are now embedded in financial institutions policies, procedures and systems.VBA JournaalThu, 01 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200Peter Bouma en Richard Frehé301cac2c-9895-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3The underperformance of Value vs. Growth stocks explainedhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/the-underperformance-of-value-vs-growth-stocks-explained/4a37e54d-5361-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Value investing in equity is a popular way to gain outperformance. Once popularised by Benjamin Graham and currently a firm building block of smart beta strategies, the idea isto reap the Value factor premium by investing in cheap companies with low valuation ratios per share (Book Value, FreeCash Flow, Earnings, Sales). Academic research and asset managers have shown that this approach has historically led to better returns than Growth stocks and the Market index. But not for the last 13 years! (Figure 1).VBA JournaalTue, 15 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100Jeroen Kakebeeke4a37e54d-5361-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3A Value Manager’s Perspective: How Adaptiveness Helped Us Survive the Value Bearhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/a-value-manager-s-perspective-how-adaptiveness-helped-us-survive-the-value-bear/d7ce7e8a-536f-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3There are signs of changing fortunes for the Value Investing philosophy, but the first precondition for Value managers to benefit is to have survived the style’s thirteen-year bear market. Fortunately the last decade has seen step changes in the tools available to investors to both better understand the portfolio risks being taken as well as improve investment processes to mitigate the headwinds.VBA JournaalTue, 15 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100Robert Davisd7ce7e8a-536f-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3The Man Who Solved the Markethttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/the-man-who-solved-the-market/f79420fe-5375-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3The Man Who Solved the Markets released late last year, and as enthusiasts looking for additional insights in the world of the secretive hedge fund that Renaissance Technologies (Rentec) is, we were quick to grab a copy.VBA JournaalTue, 15 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100Ashutosh Shahi, CFA and Patrick Brongerf79420fe-5375-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Fragility Score – a tool for choosing between competing portfolioshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/fragility-score-a-tool-for-choosing-between-competing-portfolios/47b0c956-0bef-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3The Coronavirus pandemic and climate change are stark examples of the uncertainty that long-term investors face. Their consequences are impossible to predict, forcing investors to think of the future in terms of multiple competing scenarios. Such potential scenarios are not typically intended to capture short-term fluctuations on the market, but rather the longer-term effects of potential market dynamics and developments.VBA JournaalThu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0200Rik Klerkx and Stefan Lundbergh47b0c956-0bef-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Your trustee’s age matters!https://cfavba.nl/en/publications/your-trustee-s-age-matters/5d94e92e-0ba4-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3A board of trustees has the fiduciary duty to invest in the best interest of a pension fund’s beneficiaries: the participants and the retirees. This is known as the prudent person rule. Trustees’ characteristics should therefore not influence their decision making. Yet, many trustees are middle-aged men. It is not unlikely that these two characteristics influence the investment decisions that trustees make on behalf of beneficiaries.VBA JournaalThu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0200Rob Bauer, Rien Bogman, Matteo Bonetti and Dirk Broeders5d94e92e-0ba4-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3What drives low market-based inflation measures?https://cfavba.nl/en/publications/what-drives-low-market-based-inflation-measures/1011b564-92e6-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Central banks and investors critically monitor market-based inflation measures as key indicators for medium-term inflation expectations. Market-based measures of inflation expectations have experienced a sharp decline over 2019. The euro 5y5y inflation-linked swap rate has fallen from 1.8 percent at the beginning of 2019 to a level of around 1.2 percent at year’s end.VBA JournaalWed, 15 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0200Dirk Broeders, Gavin Goy, Annelie Petersen and Nander de Vette1011b564-92e6-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Not a fee problem: challenges facing traditional active asset managershttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/not-a-fee-problem-challenges-facing-traditional-active-asset-managers/4637e961-9864-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3There’s a common narrative that fee compression is the main problem that long only equity and fixed income active managers face. We disagree. This article explains that new forces of change, in combination with years of complacency during good times, has caused pressure on these traditional long only active manager business models.VBA JournaalTue, 01 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0200Vivek Singh Jamwal4637e961-9864-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Between the lines: Implementing the Three Lines of Defence model from a behavioural perspectivehttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/between-the-lines-implementing-the-three-lines-of-defence-model-from-a-behavioural-perspective/a60f5ee8-97a7-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The 2008 financial crisis fueled the popularity of the three lines of defence model as a means to effectively manage the risks within an investment firm. Although this model seems straightforward, its implementation comes with several challenges. Recent years have seen several revisions to the model, often in response to the difficulties of its actual implementation.VBA JournaalTue, 01 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0200Tom Jaegersa60f5ee8-97a7-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The financial analyst of the future: it’s not all about data!https://cfavba.nl/en/publications/the-financial-analyst-of-the-future-it-s-not-all-about-data/b760a4e7-974d-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The Belgian economic newspaper De Tijd recently published an extensive article (2019) on how alternative data are being used more and more by analysts to develop a more detailed recommendation on a listed stock. A recommendation that stands out from the rest, as alternative data like satellite images and surveys are being used to provide that unique extra insight.VBA JournaalTue, 01 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0200Serge Ennemanb760a4e7-974d-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The stock-bond correlation: where to from here?https://cfavba.nl/en/publications/the-stock-bond-correlation-where-to-from-here/8b7a47c6-986f-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3With earnings and bond yields now converging and starting to move in the same direction once more, many investors are beginning to wonder what the relationship between the two major asset classes will look like going forward. A prolonged reversal of the stock-bond price correlation from negative to positive would have critical implications for multi-asset class portfolio risk management.VBA JournaalMon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0200Christoph Schon8b7a47c6-986f-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Factor benchmark crowding: hidden costs you do not read about in the prospectushttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/factor-benchmark-crowding-hidden-costs-you-do-not-read-about-in-the-prospectus/2a9e4e25-9da3-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Imagine you would like to de-risk your asset mix a little. Equity markets are enjoying a ten year bull market run and are still almost at all-time highs, valuations seem stretched and several macro- and geopolitical risks lie ahead. You do not want to make drastic shifts in your asset mix, nor engage in a complex derivatives strategy.VBA JournaalMon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0200Anonymous2a9e4e25-9da3-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Benchmarking & Strategic Asset Allocationhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/benchmarking-strategic-asset-allocation/45e2d5d7-9d24-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3In recent years the question of benchmark selection is receiving more and more attention from various groups of stakeholders. Almost 10 years ago regulators within and beyond European Union started to conduct investigations on manipulations with LIBOR and other benchmarks. Jurisdictions from around the world have concluded that benchmarks directly affect the value of the financial instruments and other contracts which are referenced to them.VBA JournaalMon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0200Ernest Hryhoryev45e2d5d7-9d24-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Pete Chiappinelli: we look for value and buy assets that other investors avoidhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/pete-chiappinelli-we-look-for-value-and-buy-assets-that-other-investors-avoid/41707f68-9dc9-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3We spoke to Pete Chiappinelli, based at the headquarters of GMO in Boston, about his outlook for markets. GMO is a value investor that does not use the traditional benchmark approach. Instead, GMO looks for asset classes that are undervalued. They do not try to forecast economies or predict the timing of major market shocks.VBA JournaalSat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100Jaap Koelewijn41707f68-9dc9-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Seasons, natural disasters and perfect stormshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/seasons-natural-disasters-and-perfect-storms/53995393-9dcc-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Many commentators argue that we are at the end of the cycle. But are we just facing a typical business cycle winter or are we facing a perfect storm? This is a difficult question, since financial markets are the result of human interactions that are fuelled by emotions (such as fear and greed) and group dynamics.VBA JournaalSat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100Pim van Diepen (l), Stefan Lundbergh (r)153995393-9dcc-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Market-based indicators of homogeneity and risk taking in the banking sectorhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/market-based-indicators-of-homogeneity-and-risk-taking-in-the-banking-sector/ab112561-9dc4-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3We evaluate the impact of post-crisis regulations on homogeneity and risk taking in the banking sector through market-based indicators. In the past decade, many regulatory reforms have been implemented or are gradually being phased in. Higher capital requirements and stricter rules should make individual banks safer.VBA JournaalSat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100Dirk Broeders (ml), Jacob Dankert (l), Roel Mehlkopf (r), Mark Mink (mr)ab112561-9dc4-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Strategic allocation to emerging markets factor premiumshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/strategic-allocation-to-emerging-markets-factor-premiums/001e5762-a02b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Many investment portfolios contain a portion of emerging market equities. Common reasons for investors to allocate to this asset class have been fourfold: 1) capture a potential risk premium, 2) diversify a traditional equity/bond portfolio, 3) get some commodity exposure and therefore inflation protection in the portfolio and 4) because it is simply part of the broader market portfolio, see Doeswijk et al. (2014) and Saunders and Walter (2002).VBA JournaalMon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200Wilma de Groot (l), Weili Zhou (r)001e5762-a02b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Investing in stability around Europehttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/investing-in-stability-around-europe/4ea71e6a-a0d5-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3In recent years there has been a growing concern about the ‘ring of instability around Europe’. Conflicts, terrorism, and the migration crisis pose threats to the delicate stability in some countries and increase the instability in others. All of these are indicators which scare most traditional investors.VBA JournaalMon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200Tim Evers (l), Martine van Aalst-Ebbers (r)4ea71e6a-a0d5-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Aligning Asset Owner’s Portfolios to the UN Sustainable Development Goalshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/aligning-asset-owner-s-portfolios-to-the-un-sustainable-development-goals/54d81e5e-a01d-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require financing of $ 5-7 trillion annually in order to be met by 2030 (UNCTAD, 2014). This can be seen as both a need and an investment opportunity. The opportunity is the result of transforming a challenge into an investable solution.VBA JournaalMon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200Bruno Besek54d81e5e-a01d-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Valuing Term Premiums in Emerging Markets Local Currency Yield Curveshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/valuing-term-premiums-in-emerging-markets-local-currency-yield-curves/60042209-9f65-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The emerging markets (EM) local currency sovereign bonds asset class has undergone a period of extraordinary expansion over the last 15 years. The subset of the asset class that is readily accessible to global investors is now composed of 19 countries and has a market value of USD 1,130 billion.VBA JournaalMon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200Lewis Jones (l), Richard Sanders (r)60042209-9f65-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Tonchain: the future of pensions?https://cfavba.nl/en/publications/tonchain-the-future-of-pensions/1d94b368-a350-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Many readers of this magazine will have heard of blockchain as an interesting technology with great potential. But what is its potential? Which financial services can be disrupted by using blockchain-based technology? In this article we will discuss an innovative experiment that focused on the application of blockchain for pension contracts.VBA JournaalSun, 01 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0200Luuk van Benthem (l), Loes Frehen (mr), Joris Cramwinckel (ml), Rik de Kort (r)1d94b368-a350-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Nudge: improving decisions about pensions using blockchain technologyhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/nudge-improving-decisions-about-pensions-using-blockchain-technology/2697a63d-a289-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Blockchain technology has become well-known through cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. In addition to these, there are many areas in which blockchain technology can change how we currently do business. In essence, a blockchain is a publicly visible ledger that stores transactions which cannot be tampered with.VBA JournaalSun, 01 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0200Martin van der Schans (l), Joris Cramwinckel (m), Stanimir Ivanov (r)2697a63d-a289-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Why Crypto Assets Should Be Part of Your Portfoliohttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/why-crypto-assets-should-be-part-of-your-portfolio/43dc9d37-a36a-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The aim of this paper is to introduce crypto assets and motivate to include crypto assets in your portfolio. Blockchains and cryptocurrencies have become the buzzwords of this decade. From a practical point of view, however, their use cases are still not widely adopted. With over a thousand crypto assets on the market, only a select few have the potential to live up to the hype.VBA JournaalSun, 01 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0200Zev de Zeeuw (l), Alex Fauvel (m), Amadeo Brands (r)43dc9d37-a36a-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Cryptocurrencies in institutional investors’ portfolioshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/cryptocurrencies-in-institutional-investors-portfolios/856b92b0-a36f-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The main goal of this research paper is to investigate whether investing in cryptoassets may be attractive for institutional investors. Institutional investors, such as pension funds and endowments, typically have long investment horizons and a high tolerance to risk, making a non-negligible allocation to alternative investments appropriate.VBA JournaalSun, 01 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0200Fares Ben Ghachem (r), Iavor Botev (l)856b92b0-a36f-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3A truth machine? – A rational choice framework to assess the suitability of blockchain solutions to solve transactional problemshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/a-truth-machine-a-rational-choice-framework-to-assess-the-suitability-of-blockchain-solutions-to-solve-transactional-problems/afaf1c76-a365-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3This is a short version of a paper written for the Risk Management for Financial Institutions MSc. The paper is written on the personal title of the author.VBA JournaalSun, 01 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0200Matthijs Hanninkafaf1c76-a365-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Near-optimal portfolio constructionhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/near-optimal-portfolio-construction/93dff44f-a59b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Portfolio optimization is the current academic standard for determining an investor’s optimal portfolio. By incorporating future return information and the investor’s goal into the optimization problem, it aims to determine the investor’s optimal investment decision.VBA JournaalSun, 15 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0200Martin van der Schans93dff44f-a59b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3MiFID II: final countdown towards go-livehttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/mifid-ii-final-countdown-towards-go-live/d3c13206-a737-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The 3 January 2018, was a date marked in the calendar of nearly every financial market professional as the day the revised Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID II) effectively entered into force in the Netherlands/European Union. These past few months have seen frantic preparation and implementation efforts for what is shaping up to be one of the largest regulatory changes of the decade.VBA JournaalFri, 01 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0100Jeroen van der Kroft (r), Arjan Bom (l)d3c13206-a737-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Beyond the discussion: active versus passive and factor investinghttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/beyond-the-discussion-active-versus-passive-and-factor-investing/4dc6c7f5-a828-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3This article challenges the continuing discussion among institutional investors about investing in active versus passive products and factor investing. I call this discussion obsolete and will be asserting that the major obstacle facing institutional investors is not the lack of alpha generating capacity of active managers but rather the investor’s ill-conceived process of portfolio construction.VBA JournaalSun, 01 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0200Fons Lute4dc6c7f5-a828-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Global Macro; Embracing the Unthinkablehttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/global-macro-embracing-the-unthinkable/77885c65-aca1-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3A changing geo-political landscape, low interest rates, and changing pension deals challenge investors in navigating their asset base through uncertain financial markets. The question is how unconventional monetary policy of the major central banks around the world unfolds and how financial market dynamics evolve from here, especially when interest rates rise.VBA JournaalSat, 01 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0200Roy Hoevenaars (r) Pieter Jelle van der Sluis (l) Gerlof de Vrij (m)77885c65-aca1-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Valuing uncertainty using disruptive scenarios and real optionshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/valuing-uncertainty-using-disruptive-scenarios-and-real-options/8c4de886-abc1-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Investment decision making methodologies like Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) require forecasts. However, what if the future cash flows are highly uncertain? Disruptive scenarios have been used for more than four decades to “think the unthinkable” and to make uncertainties explicit. For internal decision making of the company, DCF has been supplemented with the real option theory, to value uncertainty.VBA JournaalSat, 01 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0200Paul de Ruijter8c4de886-abc1-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Samenvatting van RMFI-scriptie: “Expectation Convergence and Herding Behavior among Professional Forecasters”https://cfavba.nl/en/publications/samenvatting-van-rmfi-scriptie-expectation-convergence-and-herding-behavior-among-professional-forecasters/20ad2af1-add6-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Professional forecasters’ expectations can have a significant impact on financial markets. Hommes (2011) points out that “individual expectations about future aggregate outcomes is the key feature that distinguishes social sciences and economics from the natural sciences”. He mentions that weather forecasts do not influence the probability of rain, but that economic forecasts do influence financial markets.VBA JournaalSat, 15 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0200Rutger Groot20ad2af1-add6-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Interview Dan Arielyhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/interview-dan-ariely/d06d5524-ad8c-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Koelewijn: I’ve read your book The Honest Truth about Dishonesty with interest. Could you please tell me about your most important findings with regards to dishonesty and integrity?VBA JournaalSat, 15 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0200Jaap Koelewijnd06d5524-ad8c-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3A robust approach to investing in an uncertain worldhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/a-robust-approach-to-investing-in-an-uncertain-world/32800821-b17c-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Ten years ago many of us were struggling with the “unthinkable” Japanese scenario of lower interest rates for longer. What if the same would happen in Europe? Most of us faced problems integrating this very unlikely possibility in a strategic decision process dominated by traditional Asset Liability Modelling (ALM). Today, we know that what was “unthinkable” back then became reality.VBA JournaalSat, 01 Oct 2016 00:00:00 +0200Stefan Lundbergh (l) Mark Petit (r)32800821-b17c-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Samenvatting van RMFI scriptie: Liquidity mismatch risks and the determination of liquidity terms for corporate credit fundshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/samenvatting-van-rmfi-scriptie-liquidity-mismatch-risks-and-the-determination-of-liquidity-terms-for-corporate-credit-funds/53817b07-b3ef-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Corporate credit mutual funds (CCFs)2 offering unconstrained daily liquidity to its investors suffer from a fallacy of composition due to their collective action problem. The problem arises if a large part of the fund investors demand liquidity while the fund invests in less liquid corporate bonds.VBA JournaalFri, 01 Jul 2016 00:00:00 +0200Mark Geene53817b07-b3ef-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The Inflation Puzzlehttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/the-inflation-puzzle/39b39f2e-b825-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Inflation plays a major role in the global economy and financial markets. Globally, central banks have adopted inflation targeting as their single most important target, having been haunted by periods of hyperinflation and deflation in the past. They flood the markets with liquidity and are willing to risk many unknown and unintended consequences, just to get inflation back in its presumed comfort zone.VBA JournaalTue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100Gerlof de Vrij39b39f2e-b825-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Why options tell you how to make money on stockshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/why-options-tell-you-how-to-make-money-on-stocks/913c5556-bc64-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3In theory, a stock option should simply reflect expectations that have already been priced in its underlying stock. However, by investigating the option trading measures implied volatility (IV) spread and skew in accordance with recent research, this study evidences that option markets lead stock markets. In particular, the higher the observed IV spread value, the higher the predicted positive excess returns on the respective stock.VBA JournaalWed, 01 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0200Felix Gornik913c5556-bc64-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Art and science; Judgement calls increasingly complement mathematical models in asset allocation decisionshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/art-and-science-judgement-calls-increasingly-complement-mathematical-models-in-asset-allocation-decisions/a21289f2-bc57-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The interview in this issue of the VBA Journaal is with Roger Urwin of the consultancy firm Towers Watson. Having worked in various positions at Towers Watson over the past 25 years, Mr. Urwin has an extensive experience working with institutional clients from different countries and has been involved in a wide range of investment issues, ranging from optimal asset allocation to ESG incorporation and governance.VBA JournaalWed, 01 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0200Jaap Koelewijna21289f2-bc57-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Return on insurance: Innovation of a rewarding niche fixed income strategyhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/return-on-insurance-innovation-of-a-rewarding-niche-fixed-income-strategy/bc444a8b-c90b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Fundamental changes in industries can offer interesting opportunities for investors to earn attractive risk-adjusted returns. The combination of a major regulatory change and the fall-out from the financial crisis result in such opportunities for investors in the European insurance sector.VBA JournaalTue, 01 Oct 2013 00:00:00 +0200FLTR: Ruurd Haan, Andrew Townend and Oscar Peschbc444a8b-c90b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Farmland investment: Reaping the rewards of illiquidity?https://cfavba.nl/en/publications/farmland-investment-reaping-the-rewards-of-illiquidity/ec967e29-c9a6-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Upheavals in international financial markets, low yields on traditional investments, and the threat of inflation resulting from quantitative easing are causing an increasing number of investors to evaluate alternative asset classes.VBA JournaalMon, 01 Jul 2013 00:00:00 +0200Rik van Beers, Sander Bierman, Charles Elworthy, Dane Rook, Jérôme Schoumannec967e29-c9a6-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Hedging Longevity Risk A case study analysis of hedge effectivenesshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/hedging-longevity-risk-a-case-study-analysis-of-hedge-effectiveness/da5497b2-cc34-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Longevity risk has jumped to the forefront of pension risk management in recent years, as changing actuarial assumptions and low interest rates have placed additional stress on the funding ratios of pension plans.VBA JournaalSat, 01 Dec 2012 00:00:00 +0100Judit Vennix, Anita Joosten, Frans Claes, Martijn Tans, Chris Madsen, Sylvain de Cromda5497b2-cc34-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Liability-based Benchmarkinghttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/liability-based-benchmarking/4039b022-d4cd-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Investment managers are very familiar with market-based benchmarks that are used in the context of traditional fixed-income and equity portfolios. These benchmarks reflect the strategic direction of the respective portfolios and play a crucial role in both the risk analysis of the portfolio and the performance evaluation of the manager. Moreover, these benchmark portfolios are based on well-defined rules and typically use tradeable market instruments.VBA JournaalThu, 01 Dec 2011 00:00:00 +0100Martin Prins and Bas Peeters4039b022-d4cd-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Low Volatility Equity Strategies – The Greatest Anomaly in Finance?https://cfavba.nl/en/publications/low-volatility-equity-strategies-the-greatest-anomaly-in-finance/59219dea-d4c7-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Traditional finance is based upon the idea that risk is rewarded with higher average returns. It may surprise many investors to learn, however, that over the past 40 years U.S. portfolios comprised of high-risk stocks have substantially underperformed their lower-risk counterparts. This so-called low-volatility anomaly offers intriguing potential opportunities for investors.VBA JournaalThu, 01 Dec 2011 00:00:00 +0100Sander van Ouwerkerk59219dea-d4c7-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Low-volatility investing: a long-term perspectivehttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/low-volatility-investing-a-long-term-perspective/8fbfe0cc-2507-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Over the long-run, risk and return within equity markets are not related. Selecting stocks with a higher risk, does not automatically lead to a higher return (e.g. see a recent discussion on this topic in VBA journaal, by van Vliet (2008) and de Zwart and van Dijk (2009)). This empirical finding contradicts investment theory, which states that higher risk should give a higher expected return.VBA JournaalThu, 01 Dec 2011 00:00:00 +0100Pim van Vliet8fbfe0cc-2507-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Are performance fees beneficial to mutual fund investors?https://cfavba.nl/en/publications/are-performance-fees-beneficial-to-mutual-fund-investors/8ff7b2bd-d7ad-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Bonuses and incentive fees have raised considerable debate since the global financial crisis of 2008. Public and media are skewed towards the opinion that incentive fees for CEOs, bankers and asset managers have led to excessive risk taking and are not in the interests of clients.VBA JournaalSat, 01 Oct 2011 00:00:00 +0200Peter van Doesburg en Marcel de Kleer (Wealth Management Partners)8ff7b2bd-d7ad-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Four lessons for institutional investors regarding high-frequency tradinghttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/four-lessons-for-institutional-investors-regarding-high-frequency-trading/3cf5a07d-da4b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Financial markets worldwide have changed dramatically in recent years due to technological improvements. Not long ago, the majority of the stock market volume was executed manually on the exchange floor through hand signaling and shouting. Nowadays, most orders are executed at great speed by fully automated systems.VBA JournaalFri, 15 Apr 2011 00:00:00 +0200Dirk Broeders, David Rijsbergen and Robin Vogelaar3cf5a07d-da4b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Can Theoretical Risk Premiums be captured by investing in passive funds?https://cfavba.nl/en/publications/can-theoretical-risk-premiums-be-captured-by-investing-in-passive-funds/292dd3a8-db01-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Finance theory argues that investors can earn risk premiums by investing in assets that are not risk free, such as stocks (equity risk premium), government bonds (term premium) and corporate bonds (default premium). Theoretical portfolios, such as the Fama and French (1992) factors, are often used to gauge the economic magnitude of these premiums.VBA JournaalWed, 01 Dec 2010 00:00:00 +0100f.l.t.r. Laurens Swinkels, Patrick Houweling, Joop Huij and David Blitz292dd3a8-db01-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3IMQubator: Innovation in seeding Hedge Fund Managershttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/imqubator-innovation-in-seeding-hedge-fund-managers/fc278645-da59-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Innovation is a word often used to grab the attention of prospective investors. However, the actual benefits to investors, expressed in riskreward terms, of being innovative are sometimes less easy to describe. Why? Because evaluating new investment strategies requires other skills and tools than evaluating those with a long track record.VBA JournaalWed, 01 Dec 2010 00:00:00 +0100Jeroen M. Tielman and Rikard Lundgrenfc278645-da59-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The Equity Risk Premium and parameter uncertaintyhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/the-equity-risk-premium-and-parameter-uncertainty/0eefc19a-e7ad-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The design of the financial set-up of a pension fund relies heavily on the financial parameters, most notably the discount rate for pension liabilities and the expected return on assets. It is therefore important to all stakeholders that the parameters are chosen in the best possible way. For Dutch pension funds, these parameters are bounded by legal guidelines.VBA JournaalThu, 15 Apr 2010 00:00:00 +0200Tjitsger Hulshoff0eefc19a-e7ad-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Diversification and the Inefficiency of the Market Cap Portfoliohttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/diversification-and-the-inefficiency-of-the-market-cap-portfolio/943543e7-e6e8-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Equity indexation using Market Cap-weighted portfolios appears so natural to investors today that it is easy to forget that indices have not always been considered as central to the investment process. The size of asset under management which are benchmarked to Market Cap Weighted indices has grown enormously over the last thirty years,...VBA JournaalThu, 15 Apr 2010 00:00:00 +0200Yves Choueifaty943543e7-e6e8-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Disinflation, a legacy from the financial crisishttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/disinflation-a-legacy-from-the-financial-crisis/7962d5fc-dd74-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The financial crisis has shaken the economic environment to its core, exposing the general population to the despair of confidence withdrawal brought on by large personal financial loss and loss of faith in the financial system. Economic loss was evident in the statistical observation of sharply negative GDP growth in most major economies. The resultant output gap, that is the difference between actual and potential GDP, widened to a multi-decade extreme.VBA JournaalThu, 01 Oct 2009 00:00:00 +0200Eric Siegloff (r), Willem Verhagen (l)7962d5fc-dd74-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Do value stocks outperform in a prolonged downturn?https://cfavba.nl/en/publications/do-value-stocks-outperform-in-a-prolonged-downturn/e748bdbc-e9e5-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3There is substantial empirical evidence suggesting that value stocks outperform growth stocks, for example Fama and French (1998) and Brandes Institute (2007). Fundamental justifications for superior performance of value stocks are also ample. Frequently, arguments are rooted in behavioural aspects, such as the fact that growth stocks tend to be over-researched by analysts.VBA JournaalMon, 01 Dec 2008 00:00:00 +0100Drs. Ivan D. Moen RBA (l), Drs. Jelte de Boer CFA (r)e748bdbc-e9e5-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Knowledge management in asset management firmshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/knowledge-management-in-asset-management-firms/2e87d944-eacd-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3An asset manager’s business model is in essence a fiduciary model: all efforts are focused on wealth creation for its clients. Although the output can be measured in physical monetary units, the asset management process itself is highly dependent on data, information and knowledge. Better still, most asset managers claim to exert specific knowledge as a result of which clients will benefit in terms of better performance.VBA JournaalWed, 01 Oct 2008 00:00:00 +0200Eduard van Gelderen2e87d944-eacd-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3130/30 investing: just another hype or here to stay?https://cfavba.nl/en/publications/130-30-investing-just-another-hype-or-here-to-stay/6fd983e1-ec5b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3By following a long-only investment approach, traditional investment funds can only benefit from rising stock prices. A new generation of funds, popularly known as 130/30 funds, aims to achieve superior returns by having the additional flexibility of selling short unattractive stocks, which enables them to turn falling share prices into additional positive returns.VBA JournaalTue, 01 Jul 2008 00:00:00 +0200David Blitz6fd983e1-ec5b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Investing in Cat Bondshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/investing-in-cat-bonds/abbf21da-eddd-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Catastrophe bonds (cat bonds) are a relatively new but fast growing and attractive investment opportunity. Cat bonds are designed to transfer insurance risk resulting from extremely large and costly natural catastrophes from (re)insurance companies to the capital markets in return for a risk premium. In addition to the attractive expected return, another main benefit of cat bonds is the lack of correlation with other asset classes.VBA JournaalTue, 01 Jul 2008 00:00:00 +0200Peter-Jan de Koning (l) en Rogier Leeuwenburgh (r)abbf21da-eddd-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Mergers and Acquisitions in the Dutch Stock Markethttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/mergers-and-acquisitions-in-the-dutch-stock-market/acf536d3-edb3-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3In this study, we examine the Dutch mergers and acquisitions market for the ten-year period 1997-2006. This study only includes cases where the target company was quoted on the Dutch stock exchange. On average in the 20 days before the announcement of a takeover, targets outperform the market by 5.4%, while on the day of the announcement the stock enjoys an additional premium of 14.7%, resulting in a compounded total premium of 20.9%.VBA JournaalTue, 01 Jul 2008 00:00:00 +0200Ronald Doeswijk (l), Adriaan Floor (r)acf536d3-edb3-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Constructing an SRI Multi-manager portfoliohttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/constructing-an-sri-multi-manager-portfolio/e45aaf76-f05a-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) is becoming increasingly relevant to institutional investors. In this paper we will review the various approaches to SRI from the perspective of a multi-manager. We will focus on several important issues that need to be considered when creating an SRI portfolio using external managers, as we find that investors with SRI goals should pay particular attention to some specific risk characteristics.VBA JournaalSat, 01 Dec 2007 00:00:00 +0100Sven Smeets (r) and Annemiek Steinmetz (l)e45aaf76-f05a-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Dreaming of Africahttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/dreaming-of-africa/a4682739-f42e-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Sub-Saharan Africa has traditionally been negatively associated with widespread poverty, war, drought and severe political and economic instability, despite its valuable mineral and land resources. International portfolio investment in these markets has lagged the large flows into the Asian and Latin American emerging markets. However, positive developments in recent years are increasingly attracting the attention of large hedge funds and real money funds.VBA JournaalSun, 01 Jul 2007 00:00:00 +0200Michael Wachiraa4682739-f42e-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Emerging Markets Debt: Evolving Rapidlyhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/emerging-markets-debt-evolving-rapidly/f80d3460-f43c-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3“With enough tailwinds, even turkeys can fly” captures the sceptic’s opinion about emerging markets. Over the last couple of years Emerging Markets Debt (EMD) has performed very well and as a result attracted a lot of new investors. What about the future? Are emerging markets, after their run up, going to bust as they did before? Where are the opportunities in the long term?VBA JournaalSun, 01 Jul 2007 00:00:00 +0200Rob Drijkoningen1 (l) and MartenPieter van Harten2 (r)f80d3460-f43c-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Fee structures in non-listed real estate funds for institutional investorshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/fee-structures-in-non-listed-real-estate-funds-for-institutional-investors/7c278ab9-f5af-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Investing in non-listed real estate funds has increased substantially over the last decade. Although indirect investing in real estate has existed for a long time little is known about the costs associated with investing in these funds. This article provides an overview of typical fee structures related to non-listed real estate funds for institutional investors. The topic is important for a number of reasons.VBA JournaalFri, 01 Dec 2006 00:00:00 +0100Ville Raitio7c278ab9-f5af-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Managing Risk in Multi-Asset, Liability-Driven Portfolioshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/managing-risk-in-multi-asset-liability-driven-portfolios/683b4568-f837-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Modern institutional portfolios are often complex ‘Multi-Manager, Multi-Asset, Liability Driven’ or in short, ‘MA/LD’ strategies for which the risk management and analytical tools are not yet fully developed. The article outlines the risks that this lack of risk management creates, and pleads for the development of an integrated ‘analytical platform’ that supports the various specialists involved in these portfolios with quantitative instruments.VBA JournaalSun, 01 Oct 2006 00:00:00 +0200Oscar Vermeulen (l) Richard Jacobs (r)683b4568-f837-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Setting up a Performance Attribution Frameworkhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/setting-up-a-performance-attribution-framework/be2d24cc-f833-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The purpose of any performance attribution system can be summarized in one phrase: creating and supplying transparent reports to target audiences. Unfortunately, defining the content of the reports is far from trivial; it depends on the investment process as well as the audience. For instance, trustees of pension plans are focused on main investment decisions.VBA JournaalSun, 01 Oct 2006 00:00:00 +0200Marten Klok (r) Lucas Vermeulen1 (l)be2d24cc-f833-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Sources of Hedge Fund Risk and Returnhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/sources-of-hedge-fund-risk-and-return/0e94a8d6-fb30-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3During the last couple of years, the hedge fund industry has experienced rapid growth. As a result of positive returns and strong inflows from both private and especially institutional investors, assets under management have reached an estimated USD 1.1 trillion (Tremont 2005). While this number is still relatively small compared to the overall size of financial markets, the presence of hedge funds is increasingly felt.VBA JournaalSat, 15 Apr 2006 00:00:00 +0200Drs. A.J. van Stijn RBA (l), Drs. M.J. Geene RBA (r)0e94a8d6-fb30-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The long-term risk and return effects of investing in private equityhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/the-long-term-risk-and-return-effects-of-investing-in-private-equity/bd2917b4-fb2b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Private equity is gaining popularity with Dutch institutional investors. At first sight its characteristics appear very attractive: high returns, low risk and low correlation with public equity and bonds. However, the risk characteristics in particular may be biased by the appraisal-based nature of private equity returns.VBA JournaalSat, 15 Apr 2006 00:00:00 +0200Gerben de Zwart, David Blitz, Mikan van Zanten, Brian Frieserbd2917b4-fb2b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Alternative Assets from a Liability Management Perspectivehttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/alternative-assets-from-a-liability-management-perspective/f0db5941-fb32-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Investments in alternative assets have the potential to substantially improve expected returns and downside risk of an investor. However, this potential is constrained by the need to manage the risk from asset and liability mismatches (“ALM Mismatch”). We have chosen to focus on four of the more mainstream alternative asset classes: commodities, property, private equity and hedge funds.VBA JournaalSat, 15 Apr 2006 00:00:00 +0200Patrick Lighaam (l), Mark Teeger (m), Gwion Moore (r)f0db5941-fb32-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Global Value Added/ Opportunistic Real Estatehttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/global-value-added-opportunistic-real-estate/f6addc2a-fb33-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Real estate as an asset class has long been an essential component of the overall portfolio mix for institutional investors. Diversification features and favorable risk/return metrics in general have been the most important drivers for including this asset category in investment portfolios.. Institutional investors operating in large local markets have typically held property investments directly in their local markets, while investors with smaller local markets have a longer history of cross border real estate investing.VBA JournaalSat, 15 Apr 2006 00:00:00 +0200Børge Tangeraas and Mark Kouters,f6addc2a-fb33-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Dual-Duration Matchinghttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/dual-duration-matching/774f738f-fb43-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Liability-relative investment approaches are described in two major strands of the literature. The more general strand concerns surplus asset allocation, which adapts the mean-variance return-risk balancing notions of Markowitz efficient frontiers to include liabilities as an asset held short. And there is the cash-flow matching and duration-matching strand, exemplified by the many articles on this topic by Leibowitz (1992).VBA JournaalThu, 01 Dec 2005 00:00:00 +0100Barton Waring774f738f-fb43-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Search for the Holy Grailhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/search-for-the-holy-grail/bbb8867a-fc9b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3“Mainstream finance can have an allergic reaction when dealing with the world of social responsible investing” said one of the panellists at the VBA seminar. This statement exactly highlights why it is important to introduce mainstream finance to the broader world of SRI.VBA JournaalThu, 01 Dec 2005 00:00:00 +0100Ms. P. Dutronc, Innovest – Mr. H. de Ruiter, ABP – Mr. E. Moolenburgh, ABN AMRO – Mr. M. Smith, Prometheus Advisory services – Mr. F. Lute, Blue Sky Groupbbb8867a-fc9b-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Trends and developments in the long-term incentive contracts of Dutch executiveshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/trends-and-developments-in-the-long-term-incentive-contracts-of-dutch-executives/c360f692-fc0c-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3In the past few years, executive compensation has been one of the most heated topics in the Dutch corporate world. The popular press in particular, has referred to the compensation of Dutch executive board members as ‘excessive’, and Dutch executives are being typified as greedy and solely focused on enriching themselves at the expense of the stakeholders of the company.VBA JournaalThu, 01 Dec 2005 00:00:00 +0100Erik Terpstra (r), Dirk Swagerman (l)c360f692-fc0c-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Sustainability reportinghttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/sustainability-reporting/03c6ff6e-fe74-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting, a topic that is of clear interest to investors. Retail social investors are looking for more information from companies through for example sustainability reports (Haigh, 2005).VBA JournaalSat, 01 Oct 2005 00:00:00 +0200Ans Kolk03c6ff6e-fe74-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3The economics of and trends in securities fraud class action litigationhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/the-economics-of-and-trends-in-securities-fraud-class-action-litigation/5202cb5d-fe75-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3In the US, class action litigation has long been a common method for people to seek redress when they have been injured in a common manner by common defendants. This also applies to shareholders. In response to the many accounting scandals of the past five years, a large number of accounting-related securities class action lawsuits have been filed.VBA JournaalSat, 01 Oct 2005 00:00:00 +0200Hans de Ruiter5202cb5d-fe75-11ea-8a1e-005056b303d3Liability driven investments: an active fixed income approachhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/liability-driven-investments-an-active-fixed-income-approach/1e5003ee-04a2-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3In this article we will explore the subject of liability driven investments (LDI). FTK regulation in the Netherlands, changes in internal accounting rules (IAS 19) and insurance regulation (Basle II and Solvency II) will force pension funds and insurers to focus on how well their assets are set to meet their liabilities rather than only on asset appreciation. Here, we will talk about the impact on pension funds, but the same problems also face insurance companies.VBA JournaalFri, 15 Apr 2005 00:00:00 +0200Emanuele Ravano, Marc B.M. van Heel1e5003ee-04a2-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Liability driven investment: a four step processhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/liability-driven-investment-a-four-step-process/3c2d543d-049f-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3The investment strategies pursued by pension schemes are changing. During the past decade, we have moved away from peer group comparisons to scheme specific benchmarks based on market indices. Now we are seeing a shift towards ‘liability driven’ strategies. This is not a new era; it is simply an ongoing evolution with each successive shift in investment philosophy exhibiting a common thread – the tightening of the link between assets and liabilities.VBA JournaalFri, 15 Apr 2005 00:00:00 +0200Tarik BenSaud, Marko van Bergen3c2d543d-049f-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Using Pooled Inflation Swaps to Better Match Pension Liabilitieshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/using-pooled-inflation-swaps-to-better-match-pension-liabilities/5c7ac58c-04a4-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Tighter funding and transparency requirements for Dutch pension plans are prompting sponsors to review how they manage and monitor their funds. The new rules slated to take effect next year (2006) under the Financieel Toetsingskader (or FTK) will require plans to mark both assets and liabilities to market and satisfy stringent tests on current and projected funding levels.VBA JournaalFri, 15 Apr 2005 00:00:00 +0200Susanne van Dootingh5c7ac58c-04a4-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3History of Hedge Fundshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/history-of-hedge-funds/ac875854-05b0-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3In an investor survey published by a consultancy firm in March 2000, a European chief investment officer (CIO), asked whether his organisation currently invested in hedge funds, was quoted saying: ‘No, we don’t! It is completely obvious that hedge funds don’t work. We are not a casino.’1 The survey was published at the peak of the equity bull market.VBA JournaalWed, 01 Dec 2004 00:00:00 +0100Alexander M. Ineichenac875854-05b0-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3A Critical Perspective on 20 Years of Academic Finance Researchhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/a-critical-perspective-on-20-years-of-academic-finance-research/c36a38d1-05b3-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3The editorial board of the VBA Journaal thought it might be interesting for its readers to do some interviews with people who have been active participants in academic research on finance and investments over the past 20 years (or part there of), and who have experience in both the academic and money management world.VBA JournaalWed, 01 Dec 2004 00:00:00 +0100Hans de Ruiterc36a38d1-05b3-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Institutional Money, Sector and Dollar Effects on the Dutch AEX Indexhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/institutional-money-sector-and-dollar-effects-on-the-dutch-aex-index/18efaf3a-0600-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3The Amsterdam Exchanges Index (AEX), the main index of Euronext Amsterdam, produced a tremendous performance in the period from December 1987 to August 1998 relative to the MSCI World Index. The cumulative outperformance in that period was 165%, which is equal to an annual compounded average of 9.5%.VBA JournaalFri, 01 Oct 2004 00:00:00 +0200Ronald Doeswijk18efaf3a-0600-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Deflators: An Introductionhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/deflators-an-introduction/befddc7f-0f0a-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3This article discusses the use of deflators for the valuation of financial contracts like insurance policies and pension plans. Many of such contracts contain option features. For example, several life insurance policies contain rate of return guarantees. Pension funds typically aim for full indexation of the benefits to price inflation, but in scenarios where inflation is extremely high or the funding ratio is low, indexation can be reduced or skipped altogether.VBA JournaalThu, 01 Jul 2004 00:00:00 +0200Frank de Jongbefddc7f-0f0a-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3The Role of Private Debt in Managing Liability Riskhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/the-role-of-private-debt-in-managing-liability-risk/ade7af2a-112f-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Fixed income markets have seen enormous developments in the last decade. Whereas before interest rates and currency were the driving forces behind fixed income portfolios, nowadays credit investments get at least the same level of attention. Not only because credit risk1 offers an additional source of investment returns, but also because of the many different shapes and risk-return characteristics in which it is available to investors.VBA JournaalThu, 15 Apr 2004 00:00:00 +0200Eduard van Gelderenade7af2a-112f-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3The Profitability of Insider Trades in the Dutch Stock Markethttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/the-profitability-of-insider-trades-in-the-dutch-stock-market/319447b6-12fd-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3The use of insider knowledge in financial markets is illegal. Market participants should only deal on publicly available information, so that a level playing field is created for all. Otherwise, public confidence in financial markets would be undermined.VBA JournaalMon, 01 Dec 2003 00:00:00 +0100Mathijs A. Biesta (r) Ronald Q. Doeswijk (l) Han A. Donker319447b6-12fd-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3The dangers of using correlation to measure dependencehttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/the-dangers-of-using-correlation-to-measure-dependence/a6e9cb9c-16e5-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Correlation is without doubt the single most important parameter in modern portfolio theory, where it is used to measure the dependence between the returns on different assets or asset classes. The rule is simple: low correlation makes for good diversification and highly correlated assets or asset classes are to be avoided.VBA JournaalSat, 01 Mar 2003 00:00:00 +0100Harry M. Kata6e9cb9c-16e5-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Global stock, country and sector momentum strategieshttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/global-stock-country-and-sector-momentum-strategies/c2ec2190-16ca-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Academic research has shown that a simple investment strategy based on momentum in stock returns is profitable. Former research mainly concentrated on stock momentum in the United States (Jegadeesh & Titman, 1993 and Chan, Jegadeesh & Lakonishok, 1996), but also on stock momentum in other regions (Rouwenhorst, 1999).VBA JournaalSat, 01 Mar 2003 00:00:00 +0100Anita JoostenHendriks, Judit Vennixc2ec2190-16ca-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3HEDGE FUND MANIA Some Words of Cautionhttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/hedge-fund-mania-some-words-of-caution/07b53b68-16f0-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Hedge funds are on their way to become the next big thing in investment management. New funds start every day, hedge fund marketing is intensifying and many institutional investors are showing interest. However, hedge fund investing is not without complications. It is therefore important for investors to understand what hedge funds are and especially what they are not. This article gives some background information and provides some critical comments in the process.VBA JournaalSun, 01 Jul 2001 00:00:00 +0200Harry Kat07b53b68-16f0-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Exchange Traded Funds ETF’shttps://cfavba.nl/en/publications/exchange-traded-funds-etf-s/512219f7-17ae-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3Equity markets have gone through remarkable change since stocks were invented hundreds of years ago. Since 1940, mutual funds gave investors a practical way to diversify their holdings and achieve professional asset management. With the advent of modern portfolio theory, index funds emphasized risk management and lowered investment management and transaction costs. And along the way, financial derivatives came to the foreground, giving investors flexibility in achieving their equity exposure.VBA JournaalSun, 01 Apr 2001 00:00:00 +0200Drs Marko van Bergen RBA512219f7-17ae-11eb-8a1e-005056b303d3